Attacked from the east and ignored by the West, the city's plight set a precedent for the coming years of conflict.
Whatever Russia does next, the effects of the conflict in east Ukraine will be lasting.
Demonstrators are driven by complex motives and differing agendas, but this is not a repeat of the Kiev revolution.
Twitter and Facebook helped Maidan protesters organise, but it was President Viktor Yanukovich's administration that laid the ground for revolution.
"The message is that if you’re friends with Putin, you will pay the price for his decisions."
Interview with writer and regional expert Peter Pomeranzev.
Attackers identified as Chechens from Russian North Caucasus, though their motives remain unclear.
No one has yet called alleged perpetrators of war crimes to account, and there is little chance of it happening once foreign troops leave in 2014.
Former Liberian president successfully prosecuted for war crimes, though command responsibility not proved.
Insurgents should never have been able to penetrate Afghan capital’s defences in the first place.